Scientists have developed an eye drop that can dissolve cataracts

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A whole lot better than surgery.

Researchers in the US have developed a new drug that can be delivered directly into the eye via an eye dropper to shrink down and dissolve cataracts – the leading cause of blindness in humans.

While the effects have yet to be tested on humans, the team from the University of California, San Diego hopes to replicate the findings in clinical trials and offer an alternative to the only treatment that’s currently available to cataract patients – painful and often prohibitively expensive surgery.

Affecting tens of millions of people worldwide, cataracts cause the lens of the eye to become progressively cloudy, and when left untreated, can lead to total blindness. This occurs when the structure of the crystallin proteins that make up the lens in our eyes deteriorates, causing the damaged or disorganised proteins to clump and form a milky blue or brown layer. While cataracts cannot spread from one eye to the other, they can occur independently in both eyes.

Scientists aren’t entirely sure what causes cataracts, but most cases are related to age, with the US National Eye Institute reporting that by the age of 80, more than half of all Americans either have a cataract, or have had cataract surgery. While unpleasant, the surgical procedure to remove a cataract is very simple and safe, but many communities in developing countries and regional areas do not have access to the money or facilities to perform it, which means blindness is inevitable for the vast majority of patients.

According to the Fred Hollows Foundation, an estimated 32.4 million people around the world today are blind, and 90 percent of them live in developing countries. More than half of these cases were caused by cataracts, which means having an eye drop as an alternative to surgery would make an incredible difference.

The new drug is based on a naturally-occurring steroid called lanosterol. The idea to test the effectiveness of lanosterol on cataracts came to the researchers when they became aware of two children in China who had inherited a congenital form of cataract, which had never affected their parents. The researchers discovered that these siblings shared a mutation that stopped the production of lanosterol, which their parents lacked.

So if the parents were producing lanosterol and didn’t get cataracts, but their children weren’t producing lanosterol and did get cataracts, the researchers proposed that the steroid might halt the defective crystallin proteins from clumping together and forming cataracts in the non-congenital form of the disease.

They tested their lanosterol-based eye drops in three types of experiments. They worked with human lens in the lab and saw a decrease in cataract size. They then tested the effects on rabbits, and according to Hanae Armitage at Science Mag, after six days, all but two of their 13 patients had gone from having severe cataracts to mild cataracts or no cataracts at all. Finally, they tested the eye drops on dogs with naturally occurring cataracts. Just like the human lens in the lab and the rabbits, the dogs responded positively to the drug, with severe cataracts shrinking away to nothing, or almost nothing.

The results have been published in Nature.

“This is a really comprehensive and compelling paper – the strongest I’ve seen of its kind in a decade,” molecular biologist Jonathan King from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) told Armitage. While not affiliated with this study, King has been involved in cataract research for the past 15 years. “They discovered the phenomena and then followed with all of the experiments that you should do – that’s as biologically relevant as you can get.”

The next step is for the researchers to figure out exactly how the lanosterol-based eye drops are eliciting this response from the cataract proteins, and to progress their research to human trials.

Gut bacteria linked to obesity, other illnesses, study shows

Gut bacteria linked to obesity, other illnesses, study shows

Published August 29, 2013

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Individuals who lack key species of so-called “good” bacteria in their intestines are more prone to obesity and associated diseases such as diabetes, heart and cholesterol problems, according to research published Wednesday.

The findings may hold new clues to help tackle the world’s obesity epidemic, which is predicted to affect more than 700 million people in 2015, a rise of 300 million in a decade, its authors said.
An international team of researchers compared the intestinal germs found in 169 obese Danes and 123 non-obese counterparts.

“We were able to distinguish between two groups based on their intestinal flora — people with a large richness of bacterial species in their intestines and people with a few less bacterial species,” said Jeroen Raes of the Flemish Biotechnology Institute (VIB) in Brussels.

Twenty-three percent of the sample had “low bacterial richness.”

They turned out to be more likely to be obese — but not exclusively so — and to develop obesity-linked diseases.

The snapshot showed that the “high richness” group had on average 580,000 different genes in their intestinal bacteria.

Among the “low richness” group, there were just 360,000 different genes.

Six bacterial species appear to play the key role in promoting this diversity.

Further research is needed to develop these early-stage discoveries and see if they apply to other races and populations.

The hope is to develop “specific bacterial markers” to identify people at risk and even bacterial treatments to prevent weight gain, said Stanislas Dusko Ehrlich of France’s National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), who coordinated the two studies published in the journal Nature.

Read more: http://www.foxnews.com/health/2013/08/29/gut-bacteria-link-to-obesity-illnesses-study-shows/?intcmp=obnetwork#ixzz2dTwpXZJg

Hiking In Arizona

Arizona is one of the best states to go hiking and enjoy nature.   If you are new to Arizona or hiking Arizona’s trails, it’s a good idea to go with someone knowledgeable and experienced.  A great way to experience the many trails around Arizona and the valley safely while making new friends is to join a hiking group.

There are many hiking groups in the Phoenix area and several are listed on Meetup.com.   I found two hiking groups that are great for exploring various trails in the Valley as well as around Arizona.  Phoenix (2-hour) Beginner Hikers is a Meetup.com group that hosts various hikes around the area, including North Mountain, Piestewa Peak and Thunderbird Park, on a weekly basis.  This group is great for people who want a shorter one to two hour hike in the urban desert.

Another group that I highly recommend for experiencing the trails Arizona has to offer is Hiking Hikers Hiking.  This group hosts hikes around Phoenix and the Valley as well as other locations around Arizona such as Sedona, Prescott and the Superstition Mountains.  This Group even tackles Humphrey’s Peak once in a while.

If you are interested in these groups just go to www. Meetup.com and type the name of the group or just enter “hiking”.  Have fun and make sure to bring plenty of water and sunscreen!